A message we all seem to consistently pick up in Sex Ed and elsewhere is “you have unprotected sex, you get pregnant”. However, if we think about this, we know that it isn’t quite the whole truth. An often quoted statistic is that around 84% of couples trying to get conceive and having sex twice or more a week will get pregnant in a year (e.g. NHS, 2019). If you do the sums, you can see that that’s an awful lot of sex not resulting in a pregnancy!
So, why not? Well, pregnancy relies on four conditions that need to be met (Impey and Child, 2012):
Firstly, an egg must be produced. An egg is produced by the ovaries once every cycle and is only viable (capable of being fertilised) for a few days. Sex outside of this time is less likely to result in pregnancy – remember though that sperm can live inside the vagina for up to seven days. This means that penis-in-vagina sex that happens up to seven days before this ‘fertile window’ can still result in pregnancy!
Secondly, adequate sperm must be released. ‘Adequate’ means that the number and quality of the sperm in ejaculate must be sufficient to fertilise an egg.
Thirdly, sperm must reach the egg. Lots of contraceptive methods work on this part of the process – for example from preventing sperm from entering the vagina and the womb (condoms) or by preventing the egg from travelling from where it is produced in the ovaries to the womb, via the fallopian tubes (tubal ligation, sometimes called ‘female sterilisation’).
And lastly, the embryo (i.e. an egg fertilised by a sperm) must implant in to the lining of the womb. This allows the embryo to survive and develop. Again, some contraceptive methods work partly by altering this process (e.g. the copper coil or the ‘morning after’ pill).
So, all of these four factors need to align to result in pregnancy!
Impey., and T. Child., (2012) Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Fourth Edition. Wiley-Blackwell: Electronic Copy.
The clitoris used to be represented and thought of as a small ‘pea’ like structure, sitting above the urethra (Enright, 2019). It wasn’t until relatively recently when Professor Helen O’Connell fully investigated and modelled the full extent of the clitoris in 1998 (Fyfe, 2018). O’Connell is a Urologist (a type of doctor, who specialises in surgery in areas of the body including the bladder and urethra). She used cadavers to map fully map out the clitoris, demonstrating that it was a much bigger structure. Like this:
It includes structures that are hidden deep to other tissue, such as the corpus cavernosum and the bulbs of the clitoris. As you can see from the diagram the bulbs of the clitoris are very close to the vagina – even more so when a person is aroused, as they become swollen and more erect by blood being diverted to them, just as the penis does (Drake et al. 2010).
There is an excellent and short French cartoon about the structure, function and history of ‘Le Clitoris’- the only organ that is just for pleasure – here.
Drake, R. L., Vogl, A. W. & Mitchell, A. W. M. (2010) Gray’s Anatomy for Students. Second Edition. Canada: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
Enright, L. (2019) Vagina a Re-Education. Croydon: Allen & Unwin.
Fyfe, M. (October 2018) Get Clitorate: how a Melbourne doctor is redefining sexuality. The Sunday Morning Herald. Accessed online on 21.03.2019 at [https://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/health-and-wellness/get-cliterate-how-a-melbourne-doctor-is-redefining-female-sexuality-20181203-p50jvv.html}
We seem to sometimes fall in to the habit of talking about ‘discharge’ from the vagina as if it’s always bad thing- for example as a sign of an infection. It can be easy for forget that it’s also a healthy part of how this bit of your vulva works. The vagina produces a mucousy discharge that helps keep it clean and protects from infection. But what is it ‘meant’ to look like?! Healthy discharge should be:
SMELL – not strong and/or unpleasant.
COLOUR – clear or white.
CONSISTENCY – thick and sticky or slippery and wet.
It’s perfectly normal for it to vary a bit with age and during different bits of the menstral cycle, but as long as it’s within these parameters, it’s all perfectly normal… so now you know!
Thrush is one of the causes of unusual vaginal discharge. Usually not ‘offensive’ smelling, it is often described as ‘cottage cheese’ – it has that kind of lumpy and white quality. Or like the chest of the bird thrush, which is speckled and light compared to the rest of its body!
Unlike other causes of abnormal discharge, it is not a sexually transmitted infection. STIs are spread from person to person, through direct contact such as skin-to-skin or bodily fluids (saliva, mucous, semen, blood, etc). Thrush however, is an overgrowth of a type of fungal yeast (candida albicans) that ordinarily lives in other parts of the body, without causing an infection.
As well as the discharge, it is usually accompanied by an itching feeling. Thrush proliferates in damp parts of the body. As well as being able to cause infection in the vagina, in can therefore cultivate under the foreskin of the penis, or in skin folds around the rest of the body.
Vaginal thrush is treated with a cream, a pessary (i.e. a ‘tablet’ that comes with a device to be put straight in to the vagina), an oral tablet or combinations of these. In the UK, this treatment is available ‘over the counter’ – you can go to a pharmacy and get it without a prescription. However, it’s a good idea to go to your GP if it’s the first time you’ve had thrush. They can then check that this is what it is. It’s important to get further medical help if you’ve had regular infections or tried the treatment before and it isn’t working. You may also need to see your doctor if you have other medical complications as well.
The information here is adapted from an exercise from Sexplain UK, used as part of their SRE lessons. In short, it involves using play dough to build genitals. This exercise can be used to teach people about external genitalia (both penises and vulvas). As an arts and crafts activity, it can be fun and engaging and help to give something concrete to talk around in terms of things like physiology, variation and health. I have also included the recipe I use for homemade play dough.
To make your dough.
2 cups plain flour
1 cup of salt
2 teaspoons cream of tartar
1 tablespoon of vegetable oil
2 cups of boiling water
Something to colour the dough with (optional) such as food dye, paint powder, or a crushed soft pastel
Put all of the ingredients except for the water and colouring in to a large mixing bowl. Boil water and add this to the mix whilst still very hot. Mix immediately using a wooden spoon. Once the mixture is cool enough to handle, put some flour on a surface and lightly knead the mixture for a short time. If you are adding colouring, now knead this in until the dough is roughly all the same shade throughout.
Make sure the dough is left uncovered until it is cool, then cover in an airtight container. It should last for about a week. This recipe makes enough for about twelve people if doing the exercise below.
So, all foetuses have the same general genital structures, regardless of what sex they will become. They then typically (but not always) differentiate in to either a penis or vulva. These are the external genitalia (i.e. the bits you can see).
We’ll look at vulva first, as this is the one people tend to find a bit trickier.
Take your ball of play dough and divide it in to four pieces. With one of these quarters, make a left or diamond shape:
This is the vestibule of the vulva.
Next, take another quarter and roll it in to a sausage shape, about the length of one side of the vestibule and attach it to one side:
This is the labia majora, the fatty tissue that covers the whole vulva and tends to be covered in hair after puberty. Complete it by making another sausage to attach to the other side:
Next, divide the last quarter in to two. With one piece, make a smaller sausage to attach inside one side of the labia majora. This can be flattened if you like:
This is the labia minora. In about half of people with vulvas, the ‘inner lips’ of the labia minora sit outside of the bigger ‘outer lips’ of the labia majora. Let’s complete these. As with the labia majora, it’s not a problem if they aren’t exactly symmetrical:
Next, let’s make a very important structure: the clitoris. Either take a little ball of extra dough, or pinch a piece off from your existing structure:
The bit we can see here only represents the external part – it extends to be a much bigger structure internally. The clitoris is made of very sensitive tissue, with lots of nerve fibres. Some people find it arousing or stimulating when touched gently.
To complete, let’s make the ‘holes’ in the vulva. Get people to guess how many ‘holes’ the vulva contains (guesses I’ve heard range from one to twenty!). For this model, we’ll be looking at two (you can explain that some people talk about a third, the anus, which is actually outside/below the vulva). The first is about a third of the way down and can be marked with a finger or a pencil:
Get students to guess its name – the urethra, and it’s function – carries urine away from the body. It is separate from the next hole we’re going to make. This hole is nearer the bottom of the vestibule and can be marked by making a hole all the way through:
Again, you can get people to guess the name (vagina) and point out that this is the name people often use (incorrectly) to refer to the vulva. You can talk about things that come out of the vagina – i.e. blood (periods), babies and discharge (either healthy or a sign of otherwise, such as thrush or bacteria).
Next, we’ll make a model of a penis.
This time, divide the dough in to two pieces. With the first piece, make a sausage shape:
This represents the shaft of the penis. We can then make a little distinct area by marking out the end:
This is the glands of the penis, which tends to be more sensitive than the shaft. Next we can make a hole in the end (with a pencil or finger). This is the urethra or the penis. Three things can come out of this – urine, ejaculation or discharge.
Give people the option of making a foreskin – pinch off a little bit of dough and fashion in to a thin rectangle to cover the glans. This is a good point to talk about hygiene – e.g. washing with water and changes during puberty, as well as circumcision.
Next, we’ll finish off with making the testicles (scrotum). There is a good chance that students will already have made them with the other half of the dough by making two balls and attaching these to the base of the penis:
This is fine and validate this. Also explain that you can make them from a ‘teardrop’ shape and attach that. You can talk about the misconception that ‘balls drop’ (i.e. they get bigger and hang lower after puberty, but don’t actually ‘drop’ further out of the body).
It can be a nice idea to get the students to look at and reflect on how different all of the bits are. Lots of them seem to ask what ‘normal’ is – this can be a good place to point out that this is something that is highly individual.
We often talk (briefly) about the concept of it being possible to be biologically ‘intersex’ – i.e. it is possible to have someone who doesn’t have external genitalia that fall neatly in to either of these categories.
It can also lead on nicely to talking about internal genitalia and reproductive functions.
Every now and then I see an image of a penis whilst out and about. Various public places lend themselves particularly to this, such as the back of loo doors or bus seats. I bet you know exactly what it looks like. In fact, you’re probably picturing what it looks like now, a sausage shape with two circles for testicles. If the artist is paying particular attention to detail, you might get some strands of hair sticking out of them, or some ejaculate coming out of the top.
As yet, I’ve never seen a vulva presented in quite the same way. Occasionally they are seen as a piece of more formally displayed art – The Vulva Gallery is my current favourite maker and curator of such images. Why is this? Is it the different social-cultural meaning that the different genitalia have? Or maybe it’s just not being quite sure what to draw.
With this in mind, here’s my step-by-step guide to drawing vulvas. I’m not encouraging you to draw on public property, but I’m wishing that more people could.
First, draw a leaf- type shape.
This is the vestibule, the smooth bit that is usually covered by the labia.
Next, draw two ‘lips’ either side like so:
These are the labia majora, the fatty pads of tissue that surround the vulva. If you like, hair can be added here. They often cover the rest of the bits that we’re going to draw, but which are still external.
Let’s add a bit more detail. We now need to make two more ‘inner lips’, of the labia minora.
These can be either hanging out beyond the labia majora, or can nestle within. When people (incorrectly) talk about a ‘vaginoplasty’ or ‘designer vagina’ they are often referring to labiaplasty , or surgical reduction of this area.
We now need to start adding some detail. First, let’s add a little round circle. Let’s go wild and make it red.
This represents, you’ve guessed it – the clitoris. Or at least the bit of the clitoris that can be seen externally. There are a lot of misconceptions about the clitoris. Suffice to say, the bit that you can see here represents just a small part of the total structure of the clitoris. It is a sensitive area, which contains millions of nerve endings and is often overlooked because its main purpose seems to be sensual with no conventional reproductive function.
Moving on to another often over looked area of the vulva is the first of the two ‘openings’ in to the internal part of the body, the urethra. Let’s draw another small circle in the vestibule to represent the area where urine comes out, running straight from the ‘storage’ area of the bladder:
An important point to note is that this is a separate and distinct area from the vagina. Urine comes out of this. Babies, periods and discharge from infections of the internal reproductive tract do not. They come from the second ‘hole’ in the vestibule, the vagina. Of course, in real life it isn’t a hole that maintains itself and is ‘squashy’, although can accomodate being made larger – e.g. by neonates’ heads, tampons or penises, for example:
So if it’s a bigger than this, or more squashy, that’s spot on.
You can stop here. Because it’s often overlooked, I’m going to add some remnants of the hymenal tissue. Note that in health, this is not a complete covering or seal.
Voila! And remember – this is only a schematic. Vulvas you have seen may look completely different from this AND THAT IS ABSOLUTELY FINE.
This non-fiction graphic novel is a glorious, witty and visually engaging look at a history of attitudes towards vulval genitalia throughout the ages. It kicks off with a run down of top 10 men who were interested in vulvas in unhealthy ways. I was educated, outraged and entertained, all in equal measures. This is a book I wished I had doodled!
Womb carrying folks usually start menstruation (i.e. regular periods) before the age of 16 years*. I was much older than this when I began to accurately understand what my anatomy ‘down there’ was like. I think I had a conception of tampons being a cross between a plug and a sponge. I guess this isn’t completely wrong, but neither is it completely right as the bleeding’s coming from the cervix, with a vagina being a passage way.
I’ve come across a fair few people who have an aversion to using tampons, partly because they are not confident (or downright uncomfortable) with their anatomy and with the idea of placing something in to their vagina. Even amongst some of my liberated friends, I am considered a bit of a fringe eccentric for using a mooncup – something I’ve done of the last few years. About the size of an egg cup and made from soft silicone, it sits in the vagina, just below the cervix and catches blood. It can then be washed, without contributing plastic to the bin or cotton to sewage waste.
n.b. I’ve recently discovered that ‘mooncup’ is just one of many other brands. This has somewhat blown my mind.
*Lawrence and Impey (2012) Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 4th Ed.
My weakest area at med school was definitely anatomy. I enjoyed it though. Each week, we would go to the anatomy suite where the cadavers were kept and I would learn another thing I was previously mistaken about. The relationship between what we see and understand on the outside and what and where it is on the inside is often not straightforward.
The stomach, for example, is not the low down bit of the abdomen people hold when they have ‘bellyache’ – that’s more like bowels. This is part of the gut, but with has a distinct and different function. What a lot of people think of as the ‘vagina’ (the passage from the external body to the womb) would actually be better described as the ‘vulva’. In my experience, these misconceptions are rife in ideas about our reproductive organs. Let’s have a look at some of the internal xx anatomy…
Vagina: a passage leading from the outside to internal parts. It’s made up of muscular, stretchy tissue that can deform and accommodate various things (tampons, fingers, foreign objects, a baby…).
Cervix: the lower bit of the womb. Roughly tube shaped and typically around 2-3cm long. It has a hole (the cervical ‘os’) which leads from the vagina to the womb. It can change shape, size and consistency under hormonal control – e.g. getting smaller and opening during childbirth.
Uterus: Or ‘womb’. This is where a baby can grow. Sits just behind the bladder in non-pregnancy. The lining of this cavity is called the ‘endometrium’. It is the endometrium thickening and then shedding that is experienced as periods. The top bit of the uterus is called the ‘fundus’.
Fallopian tubes: connect the uterus to the ovaries. Also called the ‘salpinges’ or a ‘salpinx’. Each one ends in a ‘fimbria’. This is a little fringe of tissue that helps convey eggs in to the tubes from the ovaries.
Ovaries: whitish lumps of tissue where eggs are released from. They also produce hormones so have an important endocrine role.
All of these structures sit quite low down in the abdomen. Sometimes problems that feel like they are coming from this reproductive tract can be mistaken for problems with the bowel and vice versa. We’ll have a look at some of these problems another time…